Turkey Grading System

High School Grade Scale

In Turkey, the grading system for high school (Secondary Education) is distinct and standardized, catering to a robust evaluation of students’ academic performance. Below is a table that outlines the main grade scales used in Turkish high schools, with corresponding Turkey grades, comparable English terms, equivalent percentage ranges, and GPA (on a 4.0 scale). It’s important to note that some schools may implement variations like ‘+’ and ‘-‘ to further distinguish student performance within these grades.

Turkey GradesComparable English TermsPercentage RangeGPA

This grading system ensures a clear and comprehensive assessment of students’ understanding and mastery of the curriculum. The inclusion of “+” and “-” grades in some schools allows for a more nuanced evaluation, rewarding slight differences in effort and understanding.

College Grade Scale

At the college or university level in Turkey, the grading scale evolves to accommodate the higher level of education and specialization. Similar to the high school scale, the college grade scale includes grades from 1 to 5, with the addition of “+” and “-” for some institutions to denote minor differences in performance. Here’s how the grading translates:

Turkey GradesComparable English TermsPercentage RangeGPA
BAVery Good85-89%3.5
CBFairly Good75-79%2.5

The Turkish higher education grading system is designed to reflect a more detailed and nuanced evaluation of student performance, with the scale providing specific feedback on the student’s level of achievement in their courses.

Both grading scales are pivotal for students and educators alike, providing a clear framework for academic evaluation and progression. Remember, while these scales provide a general guideline, individual institutions may adopt slight variations to better suit their academic standards and requirements. Stay tuned for deeper insights into what each grade signifies and more on the Turkey grading system!

Understanding Grades in Turkey

Diving deeper into the grading system in Turkey, each grade reflects a range of student achievement from excellent to failing. Let’s break down what each grade signifies, highlighting the general expectations and implications for students at both high school and university levels. Emojis are included to add a bit of flair and help visualize the performance level! 🌟

🌟 AA (Excellent)

  • High School Equivalent: 5
  • Description: Represents outstanding performance, demonstrating a complete and thorough understanding of the subject matter. Students achieving this grade have gone above and beyond in their work, showing exceptional analytical skills, creativity, and engagement with the course material.

πŸ“˜ BA (Very Good)

  • High School Equivalent: High 4
  • Description: Indicates very strong performance, with students displaying a solid grasp of the subject, along with the ability to apply concepts in innovative ways. This grade is typically a sign of high achievement, just a step below excellence.

πŸ“— BB (Good)

  • High School Equivalent: 4
  • Description: Signifies good performance and a satisfactory comprehension of the course material. Students with this grade have demonstrated the necessary understanding and application skills but may lack the depth or creativity of higher grades.

πŸ“™ CB (Fairly Good)

  • High School Equivalent: Low 4
  • Description: Reflects a fair level of understanding. These students have a good grasp of the basics and some of the more complex ideas in the curriculum, though there may be gaps in their knowledge or application.

πŸ“’ CC (Satisfactory)

  • High School Equivalent: 3
  • Description: Denotes satisfactory academic achievement. Students with this grade understand the foundational aspects of the material but struggle with more complex concepts and applications.

πŸ“• DC (Passing)

  • High School Equivalent: High 2
  • Description: Represents the minimum standard for passing. While these students have met the basic requirements, their understanding of the material is limited, and they have significant room for improvement.

πŸ“” DD (Poor)

  • High School Equivalent: 2
  • Description: Indicates poor performance, where the student has a marginal grasp of the subject. This grade suggests that the student faces challenges in understanding or applying the course content effectively.

🚫 FF (Failing)

  • High School Equivalent: 1
  • Description: Signifies failure to meet the basic course requirements. Students receiving this grade have not demonstrated an adequate understanding or ability to apply the course material.

Understanding the meaning behind each grade is crucial for students, as it provides clear feedback on their performance and areas where there may be a need for improvement. Grades in Turkey not only reflect a student’s understanding and skills but also guide them on their academic journey, highlighting successes and signaling opportunities for growth. Stay tuned as we continue to explore more about the Turkey grading system, including comparisons with other countries and special grading considerations!

Turkey Grade Comparison

Comparing the Turkish grading system with those of other countries can provide valuable context for students, educators, and international institutions. This table aims to offer a broad overview of how Turkish grades might align with the grading systems used in the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), India, Australia, Canada, and China. It’s essential to note that grading systems can vary significantly between countries, institutions, and even departments within the same university, so these comparisons should be viewed as approximate guides rather than exact equivalences.

High School and University Grade Comparison

Turkey GradesUS GradesUK Grades (GCSE/A-Level)India Grades (Percentage)Australia GradesCanada GradesChina Grades (Percentage)
AA (90-100%)AA* (A-Level) / 9 (GCSE)75-100%High DistinctionA85-100%
BA (85-89%)A-A (A-Level) / 8 (GCSE)60-74%DistinctionA-75-84%
BB (80-84%)B+B (A-Level) / 7 (GCSE)50-59%CreditB+65-74%
CB (75-79%)BC (A-Level) / 6 (GCSE)40-49%PassB60-64%
CC (70-74%)B-D (A-Level) / 4-5 (GCSE)33-39%PassB-55-59%
DC (65-69%)C+E (A-Level) / 3 (GCSE)PassC+50-54%
DD (60-64%)CF (A-Level) / 1-2 (GCSE)FailC40-49%
FF (0-59%)FU (A-Level) / U (GCSE)0-32%FailF0-39%

Notes on Comparison:

  • US Grades: Typically range from A (excellent) to F (failing), with pluses and minuses to provide further distinction.
  • UK Grades: GCSE grades have shifted to a numbered system (9-1) with 9 being the highest. A-Levels are graded from A* (highest) to E (minimum passing grade), with U representing a fail.
  • India Grades: Expressed in percentage marks, with a distinction typically considered above 75%.
  • Australia Grades: Varies by institution but generally includes High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, Pass, and Fail.
  • Canada Grades: Similar to the US but with some variations between provinces.
  • China Grades: Graded on a percentage scale, with a typical passing grade being 60%.

This table provides a foundational comparison, useful for academic transfers, international studies, and understanding global education standards. Keep in mind, equivalencies can vary, and it’s always a good idea to check specific institutional policies for the most accurate conversion.

Special Grading Considerations

The grading system in Turkey, like in many countries, has its unique nuances and variations across different states and school types. This diversity reflects the country’s commitment to accommodating various educational needs and standards, ensuring that the grading system remains relevant and effective for all students. Let’s delve into some of these special considerations.

Variations Across States and School Types

Vocational vs. General High Schools

  • Vocational High Schools: These schools may have a slightly different grading focus, emphasizing practical skills alongside theoretical knowledge. The grading might be more lenient on practical skills assessment, reflecting the nature of vocational training.
  • General High Schools: Generally, these schools follow the standard grading system, with a strong emphasis on academic achievements and theoretical knowledge.

Private vs. Public Schools

  • Private Schools: They might implement more rigorous grading standards or add additional criteria to the basic grading system, such as participation, project work, or extra-curricular achievements.
  • Public Schools: While adhering to the national grading system, public schools may have variations in grading severity, often influenced by regional educational directives and resources.

Teacher Discretion

Teachers in Turkey, as elsewhere, have some degree of discretion in their grading practices. This discretion allows them to account for student effort, participation, improvement, and other non-quantitative factors. However, this can also lead to some degree of subjectivity and variation in grading even within the same school.

Handling Failing Grades

Failing grades are a significant concern for students and educators alike. In Turkey, schools may offer remedial classes or extra assignments to help students improve their grades. Additionally, there might be opportunities for retaking exams or completing additional projects to demonstrate understanding and improve one’s grade. The approach to handling failing grades varies between institutions but generally aims to support student learning and improvement.

Impact of National Exams

Turkey has national exams that play a crucial role in students’ progression to higher education. The grading and assessment in these exams can significantly impact students’ future educational opportunities, adding another layer of importance to the country’s grading system.

Understanding these special considerations is crucial for navigating the Turkish educational landscape. They highlight the flexibility within the system to cater to different educational paths and the emphasis on not just academic achievement but also skill development and individual growth. As we continue exploring the Turkish grading system, keep these variations in mind, recognizing the dynamic and adaptive nature of education in Turkey.


Let’s address some frequently asked questions about the Turkey grading system to clarify common queries and provide insights into how it operates. These FAQs aim to demystify aspects of the grading process for students, parents, and educators alike.

What does a ‘CC’ grade mean in Turkish universities?
CC signifies a “Satisfactory” performance, equivalent to understanding and meeting the basic course requirements without excelling. It’s generally associated with a GPA of 2.0 on a 4.0 scale, indicating that the student has a foundational grasp of the subject matter but may need to improve in certain areas to excel.

How is the GPA calculated in Turkish schools?
The GPA (Grade Point Average) in Turkish schools is calculated by assigning a point value to each grade (e.g., AA=4.0, BA=3.5), multiplying each course grade by the course’s credit hours, summing these values, and then dividing by the total number of credit hours taken.

Can you improve a failing grade in Turkey?
Yes, students often have opportunities to improve failing grades through remedial courses, retaking exams, or completing additional assignments. The specific options available depend on the institution’s policies.

How do Turkish grades compare to the American grading system?
Turkish grades can be approximately compared to the American system, with an AA in Turkey similar to an A in the US. However, exact comparisons should be cautious due to differences in grading practices and standards.

Are there standardized tests in the Turkish education system?
Yes, there are several standardized tests in Turkey, including the LGS (for high school entrance) and the YKS (for university entrance). These exams are critical for students’ educational pathways and are graded separately from the school grading system.

Do private schools in Turkey have different grading standards?
Private schools may adopt the national grading system but often have the autonomy to implement more rigorous standards or additional criteria, such as class participation or project work.

Is it common for grades to include pluses and minuses in Turkey?
While the main grading system in Turkey does not typically include pluses and minuses, some institutions, especially universities, may use them to provide a more nuanced assessment of student performance.

These FAQs cover just a handful of the many questions surrounding the Turkish grading system. Understanding these answers can help navigate the educational landscape in Turkey, providing a clearer picture of academic expectations and achievements.

Additional Resources

For those looking to dive deeper into the Turkish education system and its grading practices, several official and helpful resources are available online. These resources provide detailed information on grading scales, educational standards, and academic policies in Turkey. Below is a list of recommended websites, primarily from educational and governmental organizations, that can serve as valuable references.

.edu and .gov Websites:

  • Council of Higher Education (YΓ–K): https://www.yok.gov.tr/
  • This is the official website for Turkey’s Council of Higher Education. It offers comprehensive information on higher education policies, including grading practices in universities across Turkey.
  • Ministry of National Education (MEB): http://www.meb.gov.tr/
  • The Ministry of National Education’s website provides details on the educational curriculum, grading scales, and examination systems for primary, secondary, and high school education in Turkey.
  • Turkish Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM): https://ulakbim.tubitak.gov.tr/
  • ULAKBIM offers access to a wide range of academic resources and databases, useful for educators, students, and researchers interested in the Turkish educational system and scientific research.

Helpful Websites:

  • Study in Turkey: https://www.studyinturkey.gov.tr/
  • This platform provides valuable information for international students considering Turkey for their studies, including insights into the grading system, university admissions, and scholarship opportunities.
  • Eurydice Network – Turkey: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/turkey_en
  • Part of the European Commission, this website offers detailed information on the Turkish education system, policies, and reforms, providing a European perspective.

These resources are crucial for anyone needing authoritative information on the Turkish grading system and educational standards. Whether you’re a student, parent, educator, or researcher, these sites can provide the insights and details necessary for a comprehensive understanding of education in Turkey.